As we all know, this year’s noble prize for physics has been awarded to famous mathematician and physicist ROGER PENROSE for the Black Hole explanation.
The whole story starts with the discovery of the white dwarf. Which explains there is nothing heavier than this, which can exist in the whole universe. The mass of this white dwarf is 1.4 times that of the sun. A famous saying of Isaac Newton, “If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.”
The Requirement of Some Past Huge Works
For a discovery to happen in science, there is always a requirement of some past huge works. That can actually support the present research. That is what Newton did, and this is done by Nobel Laureate Penrose. Using the general theory of Albert Einstein of gravity that is the theory of relativity. Penrose explained that the inevitable thing that exists when a star is decayed gives rise to the black hole. The Nobel Prize has been shared by two other scientists, namely Dr. Reinhard Genzel and Dr. Andrea Ghez. These two scientists independently showed the existence of a black hole or the large masses at the center of our galaxy.
The history of this black hole dates back to 1756 when Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah killed. 146 British soldiers by throwing them into an underground dungeon. From where nobody could ever come back (Today is known as the Blackhole of Kolkata). The next major discovery was made in 1784. When British clergymen and scientist John Michelle and Simon Laplace. They said that ‘if an object is very heavy and massive with high density, the gravitational force exerted on it is so high that even light can not pass through it, and eventually, a black hole is formed.’
But till now, there is no existing pressure to counter this heavy mass of neutron star, so it must be collapsing. It actually collapses to a very small size that is zero sizes and indefinitely high density. Before it reaches this stage, it becomes so small by collapsing that even light can not escape this zero size object, and so a Black hole is formed.
The mathematical calculation for this whole theory was being worked out by Bishveshwar Datt of Kolkata in 1938. However, he died before releasing the research. Later on, Robert Oppenheimer, father of the first atomic bomb, and David Snyder in the USA gave the mathematical calculation. And the mathematical calculation was famously known as Oppenheimer-Snyder’s collapse. It was the time of the Second World War that the discovery of Datt could not come in front. But, later on, the Journal of General Relativity and Gravitation found Datt’s work. So, the equation was then fairly known as Datt-Oppenheimer-Snyder Collapse (DOS).
After that emerged the work of Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri in 1953, who was a lecturer in Ashutosh college, Kolkata. he attained much praise for his work upon the black hole. According to Einstein’s theory of gravitation, he obtains the result of singularity, which was inevitable in general relativity. Moreover, he was much praised for his work that he did not assume the work of his earlier scientists like Datt, Oppenheimer, and Synder.
However, in the mid of 1960s, Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose worked on the building blocks of Raychaudhary’s equation. And hence proved that the formation of a black hole through Einstein’s theory was inevitable and commendable and hence Penrose is declared to be the Nobel prize winner, but hawking was not included in that prize because the prize is not awarded to the deceased person since then.
As Raychaudhary’s equation got the place in the formation of the black hole and it also concludes to be inevitable in the gravitational collapse in general relativity. The theorems of Hawking and Penrose lead them to be the Nobel Prize winner. So, at last, a black hole is nothing but a geometric object.